Evolution of Canadian Policing
.• The role of the police in Canadian history differs from that of the United States, where police were often brought in to re-establish order.• Before Confederation in 1867, each region of the country had its own policing arrange-ments, depending on the size of the settlements, the characteristics of the population, and the specific needs of communities.• The mandate of early municipal police forces covered three main tasks:(1) policing con-flicts between labourers and business owners; (2) maintaining moral standards by enforcing laws against drunkenness,prostitution, and gambling, and(3) apprehending criminals.• The provincial police forces created in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba expe-rienced a number of difficulties. By the late 1920s these provincial forces had been replaced by the RCMP. In BC, the provincial police were replaced by the RCMP in 1950.• The RCMP, originally known as the North-West Mounted Police, was created in 1873 primarily to maintain law and order and ensure the orderly settlement of the previ-ously unpoliced and sparsely settled northwest territory.• The early 1900s to 1970 was the “professional era of policing,” during which efforts were made to increase the control and efficiency of the police.• Women have always been involved in policing, but it was not until 1974 that they began serving as front-line operational officers in Canada.• History plays a role in how communities see themselves and how they interact with the police.Self-EvaluationQuestions
1.Why is Sir Robert Peel an important person in our study of community policing?
2.In what way does the hue and cry illustrate the involvement of the community in main-taining order?
3.In what way could the frankpledge system be called the first type of community policing?
4.What was the significance of the Statute of Winchester, enacted in 1285?
5.Why is the Justice of the Peace Act (1321) important in our study of the history of policing?
6.The mandate of early municipal police forces covered three main tasks. Has this changed over the years?
7.What was the significance of the Metropolitan Police Act (1829)?
8.Define and discuss policing by consent and the legitimacy of the police in Canada.
9.What were the initial objectives of the NWMP when it was formed?
10.List some of the characteristics of the professional era of policing.
11.Discuss the three Technological innovations that have radically altered the delivery of policing services in recent times.
12.State some of the historic moments of women in policing that have occurred in Toronto since 1959.Key ideas1.Who was Sir Robert Peel?a.The first Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police.b.The Chief Constable of the first municipal police force established in Canada.c.The chief of the first organized police force in London, England.d.The first provincial police commissioner in Canada.
2.According to the historical record, where and when were the first police constables in Canada appointed?a.Quebec City in the early 1600s.b.Halifax in the early 1700s.c.Upper Canada in the early 1700s.d.The current province of British Columbia in the 1800s.
3.Early Canadians were hesitant to create police forces that had authority and power over the population. What was the result?a.Police services were developed in a uniform manner with minimal duties.b.Strong support existed for the development of localized municipal police forces.c.Law enforcement functions were performed informally by community residents. d.The NWMP was created as a national police force to facilitate peaceful settlement.
4.In 1829 a full-time, unarmed police force of 1000 men was established in London. What were these new officers popularly known as?a.Cops or coppers.b.Officers or NCOs.c.Bobbies or peelers.d.Detectives or investigators.
5.In the history of policing in France, how were the police considered in general?a.As supportive and respectful of human rights.b.As spies for the king.c.As focused on citizen safety.d.As politically neutral.
6.Which police force was the model for the RCMP (originally known as the North-West Mounted Police)?a.Victoria Police Departmentb.Royal Irish Constabularyc.London Metropolitan Policed.New York City Police Department
7.Why did the Alberta government dissolve the Alberta Provincial Police?a.A lack of suitable applicants in the province.b.Corruption and scandals within the police department.c.The economics of the Depression.